In advanced societies, most predictable is the disappearance of classic aircraft and helicopters to be replaced by (VDV) i.e. vehicles vertical takeoff, driven by turbine engines or propellers these vehicles would no longer need long runways to take land.
Camouflaged fuselage lead four rotating turbines least that would land vertically to eject the jet propulsion gases downwards, and the air would be placed horizontally in order to advance. These aircraft would not have the classic wings because you no longer need to get the elevator drive, but they would have what might be called “half-wings,” it is a side fuselage like wings, but thicker and less wide, would not be aimed at raise the device, but rather to other purposes such as transportation fuel. However, once it achieved cruising speed averages wings could help maintain stability.
The advantages of these types of devices are huge compared to previous ones, since they can land anywhere easily, do not have to carry the annoying blades of the helicopters, which sometimes collide with objects, missing the lifting force, and can reach speeds above aircraft.
The fuel may be both chemical and electrical, being used either as a function of the most appropriate circumstances.
These vehicles would be balanced by gyroscopes that would trigger all engines, being able to travel even on autopilot, pilots in charge of the general controls alone.
To avoid accidents in case of system failure could lead lift is installed parachutes on top or even additional emergency engines. These ships would agree on the sides of the hangars and cities would make it very easy travel and freight.
CRAFT DEPOT MAJORITY
With this name I mean the ships whose fuel zone would represent most of its structure in order to make a trip to space or the stars without resorting to cumbersome stages.
Thus, the ships take off the spaceport and would consume their fuel to reach space, this system is more expensive fuel than stages, but would the easiest travel by not having to organize control them. Anyway at the moment of takeoff could be used atmospheric engines, which would use the oxygen in the air and reduce the fuel needed for the trip.
The area for passengers would be at the head of the ship, and in case of accident would be separated from the rest and can land in an autonomous way. The fuel used would preferably oxygen and hydrogen, obtained by hydrolysis from the seawater.
In order to get the trip without resorting to steps and preserving the entire structure of the ship intact, interstellar ships would also be of major deposit, consume two-thirds of the fuel in the process of acceleration and the remaining third in the braking process, using nuclear fission reactors, would get the energy required for propulsion and consumption of its occupants.
In interstellar travel it would not be possible to use solar energy, being the ships too far from the stars. The propulsion system would be based on the use of gases heated to 10,000 degrees or greater ship would provide a big boost with spending reduced reaction mass and thus would remove the most of it. One could also use a propulsion system cold, the reaction gases in this case would drive at high speed devices and particle accelerators same result would be achieved. The fuselage would be light enough to achieve lower energy cost and speed for months, to minimize forces (G) i.e. acceleration forces thus need a lighter and easier to transport infrastructure. The dimensions of these ships could be from several hundred meters to several kilometers, these being authentic Spaceships cities that could be in space for centuries, being the living conditions at unbeatable onboard and no worst case the planet. In these ships would follow generations and their children would quite naturally until they reach their destination,
so they could be called generational ships. In my opinion, the propulsion system used in the future will be preferably based on the action and reaction mass, as other assumptions about propulsion systems seem less convincing, because this is the only method that has been used in the animal kingdom through evolution, and do not forget that animals have many features in common with the machines, albeit in an organic way. This propulsion system would provide high-speed ships, but not more than 15% of the speed of light. Within solar systems, ships would not be majority but conventional deposit, and energy would be nuclear but solar, it is less dangerous and inexhaustible.
The more atmospheric pressure has a planet, more interesting is the use of floating ships, these ships have a lower density than the surrounding air and thus manage to remain there indefinitely, are arguably as airships, as have many things in common with them, for example, a mother ship that was built to be always without descending to ground could be quite economical, since it could serve as atmospheric currents for movement and not even have to consume energy, as in the case of being coated with a photosensitive material such as solar panels, would collect the sun’s energy that would be more than enough for the development of their travels.
The interior of these vessels would be coated with helium gas, as this is a very light and harmless gas, and at the bottom the living quarters, fuel, batteries and goods would be located except the command area might be as in a normal ship.
There may also be ships with variable density to descend to earth with ease. In my opinion, this is the system used by some of the so-called flying saucers, from a relatively rigid but lightweight fuselage, the ship almost empty inside, instead of helium use the atmospheric gas, just as balloons hot air. Heating the indoor air, the apparatus and reduce its density float, could also help of a propeller system to increase its buoyancy, the energy generated would cause the typical brightness that is characteristic of these devices.
When the ship would rise, heat the interior and start to glow, then the air would start to go for about spillways just as does a submarine when its density is lower than the surrounding air float, the reverse process when he wanted to land, would let the cool outside air and then descend, a thermal heat conservation system, allow the spaceship to maintain high over long periods with a reduced consumption may also help of a photosensitive surface to collect solar energy. The drawback of these devices would be its limited payload capacity, being more suitable for use as ships observation, for example. Its fuel would be hydrogen and preferably electric batteries.
Ecuador in planetary space launch stations would be located, because in this place gravity is lower and therefore less fuel needed to launch the craft into space.
To make the process easier, you could use the so-called turntables launch, these platforms would remain in a horizontal position until the ships to land on its surface and then would turn to stand upright with the ship subject to the platform, then begin filling the fuel needed for the trip. Once the ship took off, the platform would recover its initial position. Ship taking off vertically, the main engines could stand behind, thus making the complexity and weight of the hull is less.
In my view, one of the defects of the reusable American shuttle consists in the fact that it is this which transport the fuel tank is much higher and not vice versa, this causes an increase of weight in the structure and consequently a greater risk to the spacecraft during reentry, the increase in weight, resulting in a temperature higher friction, resulting in danger in case of merger of the hull, this would have been solved by installing engines at all stages and making them all reusable, another positive step would be to use the unmanned craft only for passenger transport, to avoid unnecessary risks. Arguably the American shuttle only lacked the final conclusion of its design to be sufficiently effective.
LUNAR LAUNCH CATAPULTS
In the worlds no atmosphere like the moon, the most appropriate to send a ship into space would be electromagnetic launch catapults, these devices accelerate ships to speed orbital release, upon returning to land the energy used for launch it would be recovered in the braking process.
With the use of these catapults, loss of gas or reaction mass would be avoided and thus the space would be cleaner and would not be necessary to replenish the gases, which would be costly.
A more convenient way to ascend to the space is the use of laser ships, these ships operate in association with another satellite in space ship located about a hundred kilometers.
Laser ship, off the ground in a conventional manner, using its own energy system to reach sufficient altitude to the presence of clouds could not interfere with the action of the laser, then the satellite spacecraft would launch a low-power laser that used as a linking element to the other, once it had established the link and lightning fall on energy collector mechanism, the second laser, the high-power infrared type is activated.
The laser system would be controlled by computers and nothing else start the process all controls including steering ship would be under computer control in order to prevent the laser being diverted from its route.
The beam would impact on the mechanism and energy collector converge in the combustion chambers of the turbine, reheated and air would behind accelerating the craft to the required speed. Once the vessel was about to leave the atmosphere, disconnect the laser system and would use the conventional propulsion system based on hydrogen and oxygen or other.
Another advantage of this system is that energy would lift the space provided by the satellite ship turn the pick of the sun, which would be a big savings for the planet. To avoid risks some equatorial corridors for the use of these laser satellites would be reserved. This could become the most common transportation system in the future, as well as energy savings would climb into space without much effort for engines, to do without heavy fuel tanks also need less acceleration. These vessels could be used only on those planets with an atmosphere sufficiently transparent so that the laser can act, otherwise would have to resort to conventional ships.
Elected the option of using stages for flights into space, ideally using a system based on the use of two main stages system, the first would have the mission to transport fuel and make the main effort to install the ship in space, and the second stage would be formed by the main ship which in turn carry the payload, these two vessels would be separated as they approach the space. The ship fuel would not manned and return to its base in an automatic manner once separated from the main ship, this stage power turn could be aided by other propellants which would be installed on the sides.
The use of steps to travel into space would reduce the amount of fuel needed, but in return, would be a more cumbersome and less simple than the majority system reservoir system, difficulties in recovering stages once separated from the main nave. Of used stages in interstellar travel these are also divided into two as in the previous case, be responsible for accelerating the main ship to cruise and once got the two ships would separate and fuel second only would use for the braking process, once the ship arrived at its destination.